Ford, Eric B., Ragozzine, Darin, Rowe, Jason F., Steffen, Jason H., Barclay, Thomas, Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Bryson, Stephen T., Caldwell, Douglas A., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Gautier, Thomas N., Holman, Matthew J., Ibrahim, Khadeejah A., Kjeldsen, Hans, Kinemuchi, Karen, Koch, David G., Lissauer, Jack J., Still, Martin, Tenenbaum, Peter, Uddin, Kamal, and Welsh, William. 2012. "Transit Timing Observations from Kepler. V. Transit Timing Variation Candidates in the First Sixteen Months from Polynomial Models." The Astrophysical Journal 756:185. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/756/2/185
Transit timing variations provide a powerful tool for confirming and characterizing transiting planets, as well as detecting non-transiting planets. We report the results of an updated transit timing variation (TTV) analysis for 1481 planet candidates based on transit times measured during the first sixteen months of Kepler observations. We present 39 strong TTV candidates based on long-term trends (2.8% of suitable data sets). We present another 136 weaker TTV candidates (9.8% of suitable data sets) based on the excess scatter of TTV measurements about a linear ephemeris. We anticipate that several of these planet candidates could be confirmed and perhaps characterized with more detailed TTV analyses using publicly available Kepler observations. For many others, Kepler has observed a long-term TTV trend, but an extended Kepler mission will be required to characterize the system via TTVs. We find that the occurrence rate of planet candidates that show TTVs is significantly increased (~68%) for planet candidates transiting stars with multiple transiting planet candidates when compared to planet candidates transiting stars with a single transiting planet candidate.