Olsen, K., Ritson-Williams, R., Ochrietor, J. D., Paul, Valerie J., and Ross, C. 2013. "Detecting hyperthermal stress in larvae of the hermatypic coral Porites astreoides: the suitability of using biomarkers of oxidative stress versus heat-shock protein transcriptional expression." Marine Biology 160 (10):2609-2618. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-013-2255-z
Scleractinian coral populations are declining worldwide in response to a variety of factors including increases in sea surface temperatures. To evaluate the effects of predicted elevated seawater temperatures on coral recruitment, larvae from the coral Porites astreoides were exposed to seawater at ambient (27.3 °C) or elevated temperature (30.8 °C) conditions for 4, 24, or 48 h. Following exposure, larvae were tested for survival and settlement, oxidative stress, respiratory demand, and mRNA expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) 16 and 60. While elevated temperature had no effect on larval survival, settlement, or expression of Hsps, it did cause a significant increase in larval respiration, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase). The absence of a significant up-regulation of Hsp 16 or 60 expression in response to thermal stress suggests that the transcriptional expression of these genes is a less sensitive diagnostic tool compared to biomarkers of oxidative stress at the temperatures examined. The results of this study provide evidence that enhanced levels of oxidative stress are encountered in zooxanthellae-containing coral larvae in response to elevated temperatures and that this occurrence should be strongly considered for use as a biomarker when monitoring sub-lethal cellular responses to rising sea surface temperatures.