Tian, H., DeLuca, Edward E., Cranmer, S. R., De Pontieu, B., Peter, H., Martínez-Sykora, J., Golub, L., McKillop, S., Reeves, Katharine K., Miralles, Mari Paz, McCauley, P., Saar, S., Testa, P., Weber, Mark A., Murphy, N., Lemen, J., Title, A., Boerner, P., Hurlburt, N., Tarbell, T. D., Wuelser, J. P., Kleint, L., Kankelborg, C., Jaeggli, S., Carlsson, M. et al. 2014. "Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere." Science 346:1255711. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1255711
As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ≤300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~105 kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.