Hachisuka, K., Choi, Y. K., Reid, M. J., Brunthaler, A., Menten, K. M., Sanna, A., and Dame, T. M. 2015. "Parallaxes of Star-forming Regions in the Outer Spiral Arm of the Milky Way." The Astrophysical Journal 800:2. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/800/1/2
We report parallaxes and proper motions of three water maser sources in high-mass star-forming regions in the Outer Spiral Arm of the Milky Way. The observations were conducted with the Very Long Baseline Array as part of Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey and double the number of such measurements in the literature. The Outer Arm has a pitch angle of 14.°9 ± 2.°7 and a Galactocentric distance of 14.1 ± 0.6 kpc toward the Galactic anticenter. The average motion of these sources toward the Galactic center is 10.7 ± 2.1 km s–1 and we see no sign of a significant fall in the rotation curve out to 15 kpc from the Galactic center. The three-dimensional locations of these star-forming regions are consistent with a Galactic warp of several hundred parsecs from the plane.