The New World genus Philonome Chambers, 1874 is revised. This genus comprises twelve species, seven of which are described as new: two species, Philonomenigrescens sp. n. and Philonomewielgusi sp. n., from the United States; four species, Philonomealbivittata sp. n., Philonomecurvilineata sp. n., Philonomekawakitai sp. n., and Philonomelambdagrapha sp. n., from French Guiana; and one species, Philonomepenerivifera sp. n., from Brazil. Lectotypes are designated for Philonomeclemensella Chambers, 1874 and Philonomerivifera Meyrick, 1915. Partially on evidence of their head morphology and particularly from molecular evidence, the genus Philonome, previously associated with Bucculatricidae or Lyonetiidae, is reassigned to Tineidae. A possible systematic position of Philonome within Tineidae is discussed. Eurynome Chambers, 1875, is synonymized with Argyresthia Hübner, 1825 (Argyresthiidae). Photographs of adults and illustrations of genitalia, when available, are provided for all described species of Philonome and two species previously misplaced in Philonome, Argyresthialuteella (Chambers, 1875) and Elachistaalbella (Chambers, 1877). In addition, DNA barcodes were used for the delimitation of most species.