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Making Planet Nine: Pebble Accretion at 250–750 AU in a Gravitationally Unstable Ring




  • We investigate the formation of icy super-Earth mass planets within a gravitationally unstable ring of solids orbiting at 250–750 AU around a 1 {M}? star. Coagulation calculations demonstrate that a system of a few large oligarchs and a swarm of pebbles generates a super-Earth within 100–200 Myr at 250 AU and within 1–2 Gyr at 750 AU. Systems with more than ten oligarchs fail to yield super-Earths over the age of the solar system. As these systems evolve, destructive collisions produce detectable debris disks with luminosities of {10}-5{--}{10}-3 relative to the central star.

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Publication Date

  • 2016



Digital Object Identifier (doi)

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  • 33


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