Nizinski, Martha S. and Munroe, Thomas A. 2016. "Engraulidae, anchovies." in The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes), edited by Carpenter, Kent E. and De Angelis, N., 1715-1718. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes).