We present a new record to the Brazilian territory (i.e. Tradescantia boliviana), the rediscovery of a species exclusively known from the cultivated type collection (i.e. T. valida), the description of a new taxon (i.e. T. chrysophylla), synonyms for T. crassula and T. boliviana, correct the typification of T. crassula, and designation of a lectotype for T. ambigua and T. ambigua var. pilosula. Furthermore, we present illustrations, comments, distribution maps, and identification keys for the studied taxa.