Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Malvaceae subfamily Dombeyoideae based on a 6-marker dataset sampling all 21 currently accepted genera (including extinct Astyria) yielded improved resolution and evidence for multiple generic circumscription problems. The taxonomy of the subfamily is adjusted with the synonymization of 10 genera (eight in current use) and the description of one new one, for a revised Dombeyoideae comprised of 14 genera and supported by morphological, anatomical, and/or palynological evidence. Eriolaena is expanded from a narrow Indo-Asian group to include the Malagasy endemic genera Helmiopsis and Helmiopsiella, and a recently described species from continental Africa. A conspectus is presented of the new broadly circumscribed Eriolaena with 27 species (28 taxa, including 3 new Malagasy species and 16 new combinations) and defined by a unique winged-seed morphology. A new monotypic Malagasy genus (Hafotra), resolved as sister to Eriolaena, is described. A conspectus is presented of a broadly circumscribed Mascarene-Malagasy Ruizia ( Astyria and Trochetia, with 13 new combinations). Two other genera are expanded and recircumscribed: Melhania ( Trochetiopsis and Paramelhania, with one new name and two new combinations) and Corchoropsis ( Paradombeya, with two new combinations). Additionally, two genera are typified, and 21 names are lectotypified.