Rodriguez, Candelario, Ibanez, Roberto, Mojica, Luis, Ng, Michelle, Spadafora, Carmenza, Durant-Archibold, Armando A., and Gutierrez, Marcelino. 2021. "Bufadienolides from the Skin Secretions of the Neotropical Toad Rhinella alata (Anura: Bufonidae): Antiprotozoal Activity against Trypanosoma cruzi." Molecules 26 (14):https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144217
Toads in the family Bufonidae contain bufadienolides in their venom, which are characterized by their chemical diversity and high pharmacological potential. American trypanosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects an estimated 8 million people in tropical and subtropical countries. In this research, we investigated the chemical composition and antitrypanosomal activity of toad venom from Rhinella alata collected in Panama. Structural determination using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy led to the identification of 10 bufadienolides. Compounds identified include the following: 16 beta-hydroxy-desacetyl-bufotalin-3-adipoyl-arginine ester (1), bufotalin (2), 16 beta-hydroxy-desacetyl-bufotalin-3-pimeloyl-arginine ester (3), bufotalin-3-pimeloyl-arginine ester (4), 16 beta-hydroxy-desacetyl-bufotalin-3-suberoyl-arginine ester (5), bufotalin-3-suberoyl-arginine ester (6), cinobufagin-3-adipoyl-arginine ester (7), cinobufagin-3-pimeloyl-arginine ester (8), cinobufagin-3-suberoyl-arginine ester (9), and cinobufagin (10). Among these, three new natural products, 1, 3, and 5, are described, and compounds 1-10 are reported for the first time in R. alata. The antitrypanosomal activity assessed in this study revealed that the presence of an arginyl-diacid attached to C-3, and a hydroxyl group at C-14 in the structure of bufadienolides that is important for their biological activity. Bufadienolides showed cytotoxic activity against epithelial kidney Vero cells; however, bufagins (2 and 10) displayed low mammalian cytotoxicity. Compounds 2 and 10 showed activity against the cancer cell lines MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268.