In 2008, a field survey of termite-associated nematodes was conducted on Barro Colorado Island, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (BCI, STRI), Panama. During that survey, an undescribed Pseudaphelenchus species was isolated from three species of subterranean termites, Amitermes beaumonti, Microcerotennes exiguous and Obtusitermes panamae. The nematode is described and figured herein as P vindai n. sp. The new species is morphologically similar to its only congener, P yukiae, i.e., these two species share a thin stylet with small and clear basal knobs, a true bursa supported by three bursal limb-like genital papillae and a nerve ring surrounding the anterior clear region of the pharyngeal gland lobe and intestine. The molecular phylogenetic analysis based upon near full length (at 1.7 kb) SSU ribosomal DNA sequence suggested that the new species forms a well supported clade with P. yukiae, at the basal position of the family Aphelenchoididae. The new species is distinguished from P yukiae by possessing a clear condylus and rostrum of the capitulum and arcuate calomus/lamina complex of the spicules vs no condylus and rostrum and a relatively straight calomus/lamina complex, long and tapering female tail without small mucro vs blunt with small mucro present and possession of lateral field with three incisures vs four incisures.