Backlund, Mikael P., Kehayias, Pauli and Walsworth, Ronald L.
Diamond-based magnetic field sensors have attracted great interest in recent years. In particular, wide-field magnetic imaging using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond has been previously demonstrated in condensed matter, biological, and paleomagnetic applications. Vector magnetic imaging with NV ensembles typically requires a significant applied field (>10 G ) to resolve the contributions from four crystallographic orientations, hindering studies of magnetic samples that require measurement in low or independently specified bias fields. Here we model and measure the complex amplitude distribution of NV emission at the microscope's Fourier plane and show that by modulating this collected light at the Fourier plane, one can decompose the NV ensemble magnetic resonance spectrum into its constituent orientations by purely optical means. This decomposition effectively extends the dynamic range at a given bias field and enables wide-field vector magnetic imaging at arbitrarily low bias fields, thus broadening potential applications of NV imaging and sensing. Our results demonstrate that NV-based microscopy stands to benefit greatly from Fourier optical approaches, which have already found widespread utility in other branches of microscopy.