Ausich, William, I., Wright, David F., Cole, Selina R., and Koniecki, Joseph M. 2018. "Disparid and hybocrinid crinoids (Echinodermata) from the Upper Ordovician (lower Katian) Brechin Lagerstatte of Ontario." Journal of Paleontology 92 (5):850-871. https://doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2017.154
The Brechin Lagerstatte (Katian, Ordovician) from the Lake Simcoe region of Ontario, Canada contains a diverse array of echinoderms. Here, we describe seven disparid and two hybocrinid crinoids (subclass Pentacrinoidea, infraclass Inadunata), including a new disparid species belonging to the Anomalocrinidae (order Homocrinida). In total, the disparids include Anomalocrinus astrictus n. sp.; Cremacrinus guttenbergensis Kolata, 1975; C. inaequalis Billings, 1859; Daedalocrinus bellevillensis Billings, 1883; Eustenocrinus springeri Ulrich, 1925; Iocrinus trentonensis Walcott, 1883; and Isotomocrinus tenuis Billings, 1857b. The hybocrinids include Hybocrinus tumidus Billings, 1857a and Hybocystites problematicus Wetherby, 1880. Previously known from only the holotype, three additional specimens of E. springeri expand our understanding of this unusual crinoid. Nomenclatural acts include: (1) the recommended designation of D. kirki Ulrich, 1925 as a junior synonym of D. bellevillensis is followed; (2) Hybocrinus pristinus Billings, 1858 is designated as a junior synonym of H. tumidus, and previous decisions are followed to retain Hybocystites eldonensis (Parks, 1908) as a junior synonym of H. problematicus; (3) although probably assignable to Anomalocrinus Meek and Worthen, 1865, the aberrant crinoid Glaucocrinus falconeri Parks and Alcock, 1912, and its genus Glaucocrinus Parks and Alcock, 1912, are designated as nomena dubia; (4) Iocrinus similis (Billings, 1857) is also designated as a nomen dubium; and (5) Iocrinus subcrassus torontoensis Fritz, 1925 is designated a junior synonym of I. subcrassus Meek and Worthen, 1865.