Marino, A. F., Przybilla, N., Milone, A. P., Da Costa, G., D'Antona, F., Dotter, Aaron, and Dupree, A. 2018. "Different Stellar Rotations in the Two Main Sequences of the Young Globular Cluster NGC 1818: The First Direct Spectroscopic Evidence." The Astronomical Journal 156:116. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aad3cd
We present a spectroscopic analysis of main sequence (MS) stars in the young globular cluster NGC 1818 (age ∼40 Myr) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Our photometric survey of Magellanic Clouds clusters has revealed that NGC 1818, similar to other young objects with ages ≲600 Myr, displays not only an extended MS turnoff (eMSTO), as observed in intermediate-age clusters (age ∼1–2 Gyr), but also a split MS. The most straightforward interpretation of the double MS is the presence of two stellar populations: a sequence of slowly rotating stars lying on the blue-MS (bMS) and a sequence of fast rotators, with rotation close to the breaking speed, defining a red-MS (rMS). We report the first direct spectroscopic measurements of projected rotational velocities v\sin i for the double MS, eMSTO, and Be stars of a young cluster. The analysis of line profiles includes non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects, required for correctly deriving v\sin i values. Our results suggest that: (i) the mean rotation for bMS and rMS stars is v\sin i =71 ± 10 km s‑1 (σ = 37 km s‑1) and v\sin i = 202 ± 23 km s‑1 (σ = 91 km s‑1), respectively; (ii) eMSTO stars have different v\sin i, which are generally lower than those inferred for rMS stars, and (iii) as expected, Be stars display the highest v\sin i values. This analysis supports the idea that distinct rotational velocities play an important role in the appearance of multiple stellar populations in the color–magnitude diagrams of young clusters, and poses new constraints on the current scenarios. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 0100.D-0520(A), and observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.