Captive breeding programs are a valuable conservation strategy, particularly when integrated with research goals. Panamanian Harlequin frogs (genus Atelopus) serve as a case study for integrating captive breeding and research goals because they have experienced drastic chytridiomycosis-related declines and have large captive populations. Captive breeding efforts in Panama and the United States established secure ex-situ populations of Atelopus certus, A. glyphus, A. limosus, A. varius, and A. zeteki. Atelopus chiriquiensis is presumed to be extinct with no captive populations. The status of one undescribed species, Atelopus aff. limosus, has not been evaluated and no secure captive population has yet been established. Captive breeding efforts that produce a surplus of Atelopus are an important resource for research into collections management, disease mitigation, and adaptive management approaches for Atelopus reintroduction efforts. We reevaluated all Panamanian Atelopus species through the IUCN Redlist and compiled occurrence records for Panamanian Atelopus species to create a historical distribution map. We model Atelopus habitat suitability using Maxent and found annual mean air temperature to be the best predictor of Atelopus occurrence. The model will improve our knowledge of their likely spatial distribution and guide future conservation and reintroduction efforts. The recent proliferation of molecular tools, climate models, bio-banking, and reproductive technologies position us to address multiple applied and basic evolutionary questions such as: What factors cause differential disease outcomes? Do persisting populations have heritable traits associated with improved survivorship? Are there climatic refugia from disease? Ultimately, the answers to these questions will help us develop applied solutions and facilitate the reestablishment of self-sustaining wild populations.