There is limited physiological information on onset of puberty in male lions. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal non-invasive monitoring to: 1) assess changes in steroid metabolite excretory patterns as a function of age and body weight; 2) determine correlations between fecal androgen (FAM) and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolite concentrations; and 3) confirm spermiogenesis non-invasively through urinalysis. Specifically, FAM and FGM metabolites were analyzed in samples collected twice weekly from 21 male lions at 17 institutions (0.9-16 years of age) for 3.8 months- 2.5 years to assess longitudinal hormone patterns. In addition, body weights were obtained approximately monthly from 10 individuals at five zoos (0.0-3.0 years), and urine was collected from six males at two facilities (1.2-6.3 years) and evaluated for the presence of spermatozoa. An increase in overall mean FAM occurred at 2.0 years of age, at which point concentrations remained similar throughout adulthood. The onset of puberty occurred earlier in captive-born males (<1.2 years of age) compared to wild-born counterparts (<2.5 years of age). Additionally, males in captivity gained an average of 7.3 kg/month compared to 3.9 kg/month for wild males over the first 2-2.5 years of age. Sperm (spermaturia) was observed in males as young as 1.2 years in captivity compared to 2.5 years in the wild (ejaculates). There was no difference in FAM or FGM concentrations with regards to age or season. Overall, this study demonstrates that: 1) captive male lions attain puberty at an earlier age than wild counterparts; 2) onset of puberty is influenced by body weight (growth rate); and 3) spermiogenesis can be confirmed via urinalysis. Knowledge about the linkage between body weight and onset of puberty could facilitate improved reproductive management of ex situ populations via mitigating the risk of unintended breedings in young animals.