Dog reproductive cycle is unique among other mammals in that females experience long and variable periods of ovarian inactivity. Neuroendocrine controls of the reproductive cycle have been thoroughly studied in the dog. However, there is little information regarding endocrine, paracrine and autocrine controls of dog ovarian folliculogenesis. Advancements in the understanding of mechanisms regulating dog ovarian follicle development will be helpful in the establishment of an approach to control cyclicity in this species. Furthermore, such information will likely be useful for the establishment of an in vitro follicle culture system to preserve fertility of genetically valuable disease models or endangered canids. This review highlights current knowledge on dog folliculogenesis with emphasis on endocrine, paracrine and autocrine controls of follicular development.