Della Togna, Gina, Gratwicke, Brian, Evans, Matthew, Augustine, Lauren, Chia, Han, Bronikowski, Ed, Murphy, James B., and Comizzoli, Pierre. 2018. "Influence of extracellular environment on the motility and structural properties of spermatozoa collected from hormonally stimulated Panamanian Golden Frog (Atelopus zeteki)." Theriogenology 108:153-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.11.032
A better understanding of the factors influencing the biology of amphibian spermatozoa after release from the testis is a prerequisite to the development of sperm preservation methods. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of extracellular conditions (exposure to water and different temperatures) over time on the sperm motility and structural properties (including morphology and DNA integrity) collected from hormonally stimulated Atelopus zeteki. Following intraperitoneal injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-NHEt9-GnRH; 4 μg/g of body weight), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 10 IU/gbw), or Amphiplex™ (0.4 μg/gbw GnRH-A 10 μg/gbw metoclopramide hydrochloride), spermic urine samples from 27 males were collected and analyzed for sperm motility, morphology and DNA integrity while maintained at room temperature (23 °C), 4 °C, or diluted in water (hypo-osmotic environment) over a period of 46 min post-collection. Percentages of sperm motility and forward progressive motility remained high (>60%) when spermic urine was kept at room temperature or at 4 °C for 46 min regardless of the hormonal stimulation method. Dilution in water at room temperature greatly reduced the percentage of motile spermatozoa and forward progression (<50%) as well as DNA integrity (32.8% of intact cells) after 23 min while morphology did not differ (30.4% of normal cells), regardless of the hormone stimulation. This is the first systematic study on the effect of extracellular environment over time on A. zeteki sperm quality. This will contribute to the development of sperm handling protocols and reproductive technologies for this and other endangered Atelopus species.